Freeze-Thaw Damage to Concrete Pavements

Paper by MEMON from ISCR 7th 1994 Vienna Austria

Requirements for concretes in colder environments are stricter than those normally requested for standard commercial concretes. Therefore, a concrete produced with (i) high quality ingredients, (ii) a water/cement ratio of 0.35 to 0.40 by mass, (iii) 3.0 to 6.0 percent entrained air, (iv) an adequate maturity, i.e. when the compressive strength reaches about 28 N/mm 2 before freezing, and (v) a 28 day compressive strength of at least 35 N/mm 2 is considered satisfactory. The above stipulated suggestions may be conservative, but this is acceptable because the cost of removing concrete pavements once they show freeze-thaw damage is very high.

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